Morphological Characteristics of Parasitic Nematodes Trichuris sylvilagi (Nematoda, Trichuridae)

Keywords: Trichuris sylvilagi, Lepus europaeus, parasitic nematodes, morphological features, metric parameters

Abstract

Morphometric parameters are analyzed and systematized of parasitic nematodes of the species Trichuris sylvilagi (Nematoda, Trichuridae), obtained from Lepus europaeus. The following parameters are suggested for the exact identification of female T. sylvilagi nematodes: the sizes of body, its anterior and posterior parts, width of body at the connection of esophagus and intestine, specific location of vesicular cuticular protrusions and vulva. Five metric parameters are established for the nematode eggs. The egg shell thickness, length and width of egg plug are suggested for use in addition to the length and width of eggs. Males of T. sylvilagi had strongly curved tail end, long spicule, and transparent spicule sheath which bears spines, and a bulbous inflation in its proximal part. The thirteen metric parameters, which we found to be of identification value for males, include sizes of body, length and width of its anterior and posterior parts, width of body at the connection of esophagus and intestine, sizes of spicule at various areas, and location of the vesicular cuticular protrusions. Obtained data on the metric studies of T. sylvilagi nematodes are compared with the published data.

References

Clemons, C., Rickard, L. G., Keirans, J. E., Botzler, R. G. 2000. Evaluation of host preferences by helminths and ectoparasites among black-tailed jackrabbits in northern California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 36 (3), 555-558.

https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-36.3.555

Cutillas, C., Callejón, R., de Rojas, M., Tewes, B., Ubeda, J. M., Ariza, C., Guevara, D. C. 2009. Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura are different nematode species. Acta Tropica, 111 (3), 299-307.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.05.011

Czaplińska, D., Czapliński, B., Rutkowska, M., Zebrowska, D. 1965. Studies on the European hare. IX. Helminth fauna in the annual cycle. Acta Theriologica, 10 (4), 55-78.

https://doi.org/10.4098/AT.arch.65-4

Eberhardt, A. T., Robles, M., Monje, L. D., Beldomenico, P. M., Callejón, R. 2019. A new Trichuris species (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from capybaras: morphological-molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships. Acta Tropica, 190, 244-252.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.11.029

Falcón-Ordaz, J., Monzalvo-López, R. J., García-Prieto, L. 2020. New species of Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) parasitizing Heteromys salvini (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) from Costa Rica, with a key to Trichuris species described from Heteromyidae. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, 29 (2), e022019.

https://doi.org/10.1590/s1984-29612020028

Gvozdev, E. V., Kontrimavichus, V. L., Ryzhikov, K. M., Shaldybin, L. S. 1970. Key to the helminth parasites of Lagomorpha in the USSR. Moscow, 91-101 (in Russian).

Hasegawa, H., Dewi, K. 2017. Two new species of Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) collected from endemic murines of Indonesia. Zootaxa, 4254 (1), 127-135.

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4254.1.9

Hofing, G. L., Kraus, A. L. 1994. Arthropod and helminth parasites. The biology of the laboratory rabbit, 231-257.

https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-469235-0.50017-8

Keith, I. M., Keith, L. B., Cary, J. R. 1986. Parasitism in a declining population of snowshoe hares. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 22 (3), 349-363.

https://doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-22.3.349

Kutzer, E. 1978. Bemerkungen zum hasen-peitschenwurm Trichuris leporis (Zeder, 1803) [Notes to the hare-whipworm Trichuris leporis (Zeder, 1803)]. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde, 56 (1), 69-72.

https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00925939

Mahmoud, L. H. 2002. Scanning electron microscopy of Trichuris trichura. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 32 (2), 469-474.

Montalbano Di Filippo, M., Berrilli, F., De Liberato, C., Di Giovanni, V., D'Amelio, S., Friedrich, K. G., Cavallero, S. 2019. Molecular characterization of Trichuris spp. from captive animals based on mitochondrial markers. Parasitology International, 75, 102043.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2019.102043

Nechybová, S., Vejl, P., Hart, V., Melounová, M., Čílová, D., Vašek, J., Jankovská, I., Vadlejch, J., Langrová, I. 2018. Long-term occurrence of Trichuris species in wild ruminants in the Czech Republic. Parasitology Research, 117 (6), 1699-1708.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-5841-7

Panti-May, J. A., Robles, M. 2016. A new species of Trichuris Roederer, 1761 (Nematoda: Trichuridae) from Heteromys gaumeri Allen & Chapman (Rodentia: Heteromyidae) in Yucatan, Mexico. Systematic Parasitology, 93 (7), 721-730.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11230-016-9656-6

Robles, M. 2011. New species of Trichuris (Nematoda:Trichuridae) from Akodon montensis, Thomas, 1913, of the Paranaense Forest in Argentina. Journal of Parasitology, 97 (2), 319-327.

https://doi.org/10.1645/GE-2434.1

Robles, M., Cutillas, C., Panei, C. J., Callejón, R. 2014. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new Trichuris species (Nematoda - Trichuridae), and phylogenetic relationships of Trichuris species of Cricetid rodents from Argentina. PloS One, 9 (11), e112069.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112069

Schoeb, T. R., Cartner, S. C., Baker, R. A., Gerrity, L. W. 2007. Parasites of rabbits. In: Baker, D. G., ed. Flynn's parasites of laboratory animals. USA, Blackwell Publishing, 451-499.

https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470344552.ch15

Skrjabin, K. I., Shikhobalova, N. P., Orlov, I. V. 1957. Trichocephalids and capillariids of animals and man and the diseases caused by them. The essentials of nematodology. Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 115-117 (in Russian).

Špakulová, M. 1994. Discriminant analysis as a method for the numerical evaluation of taxonomic characters in male trichurid nematodes. Systematic Parasitology, 29, 113-119.

https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00009807

Tizzani, P., Andrade, D., Min, A., Peano, A., Meneguz, P. G. 2020. Does the introduction of alien Species represent a sanitary threat for native species? The case of the eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus in Italy. Life, 10 (8).

https://doi.org/10.3390/life10080142

Torres, E. J., Nascimento, A. P., Menezes, A. O., Garcia, J., dos Santos, M. A., Maldonado, A., Jr, Miranda, K., Lanfredi, R. M., de Souza, W. 2011. A new species of Trichuris from Thrichomys apereoides (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in Brazil: morphological and histological studies. Veterinary Parasitology, 176 (2-3), 226-235.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.10.053

Xu, Q. M., Zhao, C. C., Fang, F., Xu, X. P., Liu, W. G., Zhang, Q., Wang, G. J. 2016. Morphological characteristics and molecular identification of Trichuris sp. from Giraffe. Chinese Journal of Parasitology & Parasitic Diseases, 34 (2), 109-112.

Yamamoto, S., Kalepouris, A. 2020. Trichuris trichiura in the colon. Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice. Journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, 18 (10), e116.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.06.015

Yevstafieva, V. A., Yuskiv, І. D., Melnychuk, V. V., Yasnolob, І. O., Kovalenkо, V. A., Horb, K. O. 2018. Nematodes of the genus Тrichuris (Nematoda, Trichuridae) parasitizing sheep in central and South-Eastern regions of Ukraine. Vestnik Zoologii, 52 (3), 553-556.

https://doi.org/10.2478/vzoo-2018-0020

Yevstafieva, V. А., Kravchenko, S. O., Gutyj, B. V., Melnychuk, V. V., Kovalenko, P. N., Volovyk, L. B. 2019. Morphobiological analysis of Trichuris vulpis (Nematoda, Trichuridae), obtained from domestic dogs. Regulatory Mechanisms in Biosystems, 10 (2), 165-171.

https://doi.org/10.15421/021924

Zhou, M., Shen, D., Wang, J., Lu, Y., Su, Y., Peng, Z., Teng, L., Liu, Z., Hou, Z. 2021. First isolation of Trichuris from wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) in the Helan Mountains, China. Parasitology Research, 120 (7), 2665-2670.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07192-x

Published
2022-05-24
How to Cite
Yevstafieva, V., Stybel , V., Melnychuk , V., Nagorna , L., Titarenko , O., Dubova , O., Makarets , S., Filonenko , S., Pishchalenko , M., Kone, M., & Ilchenko , A. (2022). Morphological Characteristics of Parasitic Nematodes Trichuris sylvilagi (Nematoda, Trichuridae). Zoodiversity, 56(3). https://doi.org/10.15407/zoo2022.03.233
Section
Morphology