A reassessment of the taxonomic validity of Dynamoterror dynastes (Theropoda: Tyrannosauridae)

  • Chan-gyu Yun Biological Sciences, Inha University
Keywords: Theropoda, Tyrannosauridae, Dynamoterror, nomen dubium

Abstract

Associated fragmentary materials of tyrannosaurid theropod, Dynamoterror dynastes McDonald et al., 2018, were reported in 2018 from the Upper Cretaceous Menefee Formation of New Mexico. However, two originally proposed autapomorphies (i.e. prefrontonasal and prefrontolacrimal processes separated by a shallow notch; subrectangular caudal postorbital suture separated from the rostral part by a deep groove) for Dynamoterror are present in other tyrannosaurids, and the poorly preserved nature of the holotype frontal makes it uncertain whether these features are even comparable to other tyrannosaurids. Thus, the combination of inadequacy of autapomorphies and the highly fragmentary nature of the holotype means that the taxonomic name should be regarded as a nomen dubium.

References

Bakker, R.T., Williams, M., Currie, P.J. 1988.Nanotyrannus, a new genus of pygmy tyrannosaur from the latest Cretaceous of Montana. Hunteria, 1, 1-30.

Bever, G.S., Brusatte, S.L., Carr, T.D., Xu, X., Balanoff, A.M., Norell, M.A. 2013. The braincase anatomy of the Late Cretaceous dinosaur Alioramus (Theropoda: Tyrannosauroidea). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 376, 1-72. https://doi.org/10.1206/810.1

Brochu, C.A. 2003. Osteology of Tyrannosaurus rex: insights from a nearly complete skeleton and high-resolution computed tomographic analysis of the skull. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir, 7 (22), 1-138. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2003.10010947

Brusatte, S.L., Norell, M.A., Carr, T.D., Erickson, G.M., Hutchinson, J.R., Balanoff, A.M., Bever, G.S., Choiniere, J.N., Makovicky, P.J., Xu, X. 2010. Tyrannosaur paleobiology: new research on ancient exemplar organisms. Science, 329, 1481-1485. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1193304

Carr, T.D. 1999.Craniofacial ontogeny in Tyrannosauridae (Dinosauria, Theropoda). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 19, 497-520. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1999.10011161

Carr, T.D., Williamson, T.E. 2004. Diversity of late Maastrichtian Tyrannosauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from western North America. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 142, 479-523. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2004.00130.x

Carr, T.D., Williamson, T.E., Britt, B.B., Stadtman, K. 2011.Evidence for high taxonomic and morphometric tyrannosauroid diversity in the Late Cretaceous (Late Campanian) of the American Southwest and a new short-skulled tyrannosaurid from the Kaiparow its formation of Utah. Naturwissenschaften, 98, 241-246. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-011-0762-7

Carr, T.D., Varricchio, D.J., Sedlmayr, J.C., Roberts, E.M., Moore, J.R. 2017.A new tyrannosaur with evidence for anagenesis and crocodile-like facial sensory system. Scientific Reports, 7, 44942. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep44942

Currie, P.J. 1987.Theropods of the Judith River Formation of Dinosaur Provincial Park, Alberta. In: Currie, P.J., Koster, E.H., Eds., Fourth Symposium Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems. Short Papers Tyrrell Museum Palaeontology,1987, 52-60.

Currie, P.J. 2003.Cranial anatomy of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 48, 191-226.

Currie, P.J., Evans, D.C. 2020. Cranial Anatomy of New Specimens of Saurornitholestes langstoni (Dinosauria, Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae) from the Dinosaur Park Formation (Campanian) of Alberta. The Anatomical Record, 303, 691-715. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.24241

Dalman, S.G., Lucas, S.G. 2018.Tyrannosaurid dinosaurs (Theropoda: Tyrannosauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous (early Campanian) Allison Member of the Menefee Formation, New Mexico: implications for the origin of Tyrannosauridae in North America. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, 79, 99-112.

Fiorillo, A.R., Tykoski, R.S. 2014.A diminutive new tyrannosaur from the top of the world. PLoS ONE,9, e91287. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091287

Holtz, T.R., Jr. 2004.Tyrannosauroidea. In: Weishampel, D.B., Dodson, P., Osmolska, H., Eds., The Dinosauria: Second Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, 111-136. https://doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520242098.003.0007

Hone, D.W.E., Wang, W., Sullivan, C., Zhao, X., Chen, S., Li, D., Ji, S., Ji, Q., Xu, X. 2011.A new, large tyrannosaurine theropod from the Upper Cretaceous of China. Cretaceous Research, 32, 495-503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2011.03.005

Lambe, L.M. 1914.On a new genus and species of carnivorous dinosaur from the Belly River Formation of Alberta, with a description of the skull of Stephanosaurus marginatus from the same horizon. Ottawa Naturalist, 28, 13-20.

Loewen, M.A., Irmis, R.B., Sertich, J.W., Currie, P.J., Sampson, S.D. 2013. Tyrant dinosaur evolution tracks the rise and fall of Late Cretaceous oceans. PLoS ONE, 8, e79420. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079420

McDonald, A.T., Wolfe, D.G., Dooley, A.C. 2018. A new tyrannosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous Menefee Formation of New Mexico. PeerJ, 6, e5749. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5749

Nesbitt, S.J., Denton Jr, R.K., Loewen, M.A., Brusatte, S.L., Smith, N.D., Turner, A.H., Kirkland, J.I., McDonald, A.T., Wolfe, D.G. 2019.A mid-Cretaceous tyrannosauroid and the origin of North American end-Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 3, 892-899. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0888-0

Olshevsky, G. 1995.The origin and evolution of the tyrannosaurids. Kyoryugaku Saizensen (Dino Frontline), 9, 92-119. [in Japanese]

Osborn, H.F. 1905.Tyrannosaurus and other Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaurs. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 21, 259-265.

Osborn, H.F. 1906.Tyrannosaurus, Upper Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaur (second communication). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 22, 281-296.

Rozhdestvensky, A.K. 1965. Growth changes in Asian dinosaurs and some problems of their taxonomy. Palaeontological Journal, 3, 95-109. [in Russian]

Russell, D.A. 1970.Tyrannosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Western Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Publications in Paleontology, 1, 1-34.

Smyth, R. S., Ibrahim, N., Martill, D. M. 2020. Sigilmassasaurus is Spinosaurus: a reappraisal of African spinosaurines. Cretaceous Research, 114, 104520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2020.104520

Voris, J.T., Zelenitsky, D.K., Therrien, F., Currie, P.J. 2019.Reassessment of a juvenile Daspletosaurus from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada with implications for the identification of immature tyrannosaurids. Scientific Reports, 9, 17801. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53591-7

Voris, J.T., Therrien, F., Zelenitsky, D.K., Brown, C.M. 2020. A new tyrannosaurine (Theropoda: Tyrannosauridae) from the Campanian Foremost Formation of Alberta, Canada, provides insight into the evolution and biogeography of tyrannosaurids. Cretaceous Research, 110, 104388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cretres.2020.104388

Zanno, J., Lindsay, E., Tucker, R.T., Canoville, A., Avrahami, H.M., Gates, T.A., Makovicky, P.J. 2019. Diminutive fleet-footed tyrannosauroid narrows the 70- million-year gap in the North American fossil record. Communications Biology, 2, 64. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0308-7

Published
2020-06-10
How to Cite
Yun, C.- gyu. (2020). A reassessment of the taxonomic validity of Dynamoterror dynastes (Theropoda: Tyrannosauridae) . Zoodiversity, 54(3), 259–264. https://doi.org/10.15407/zoo2020.03.259
Section
Paleontology