Can you hear me now? A comparative survey of pinniped auditory apparatus morphology

Keywords: Carnivores, Pinnipedia, Auditory Bulla


Over the past century research on the morphology of the auditory apparatuses of pinnipeds, which include Phocidae (true seals), Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals), and Odobenidae (walruses) is extremely limited, in comparison to other Carnivora.  Although, the auditory region and surrounding basicranial are areas that are evolutionarily conservative, most literature is unclear due to mixed terminology, inaccurate information, and indistinct, outdated illustrations.  The lack of adequate and current studies demonstrates the need for compiling morphological information of the auditory region of modern carnivores in relation to hearing.  Auditory terminology will be explored to show morphological comparisons and naming practices among the carnivoran families.  By streamlining accurate terminology with straightforward illustrations, the behavioral information gleaned from auditory morphological structures will be clearer even among the diverse members of Carnivora.  This initial assessment will detail the limited information in prior research on the hearing adaptations for transitional semiaquatic carnivores. This review will establish the adaptive patterns (from land to sea) in the basicranial morphology of early pinnipeds, especially in phocids. 


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How to Cite
Koper, L., Koretsky, I., & Rahmat, S. (2021). Can you hear me now? A comparative survey of pinniped auditory apparatus morphology. Zoodiversity, 55(1).