Archaic Dialect of Chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs (Passeriformes, Fringillidae), Song in the Lower-Dnipro Area (South Ukraine) and Its Territorial Relations
We studied the geographic variation of Chaffinch song in Ukraine since 2002. The most wide-spread dialects were described from Forest and Forest-Steppe zones and in the Carpathians. We supposed existence of specific song complexes with archaic features in forests of Steppe zone and found four ones including the dialect of Crimean Chaffinch F. c. solomkoi. One of them is located in the Lower-Dnieper Area. For its describing, we recorded 11 673 songs of 2008 males songs from 43 points of South Ukraine in 2004-2015. This dialect has compound spatial structure and connects with other dialects forming good-developed contact area with them. Its core placed in old forests of low stream of the Dnieper river. It has spread from them to the new forests of their outskirts. Complex was divided at level of dialect by cluster analysis. It include considerable number of original song types. Their elements and structure demonstrate archaic features similar with ones of other south complexes but more modern then old Carpathian and Danube dialects. It occupies middle position between them and modern dialects of Forest and Steppe-Forest Ukraine by structure of song, and is similar to dialect of Crimean Chaffinch and song complex of South-East Ukraine.
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