Autumn migration of birds over Polonyna Borzhava (Ukrainian Carpathians)
Migration processes of birds occurring on the Polonyna Borzhava ridge were studied. Material was collected during 52-days period since September till November 2018 and total duration of observations was equal to 307 hours. It was found that despite difficult terrain and variable weather conditions at least 48 species of birds migrate over Polonyna Borzhava. Among them the following species dominate: Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, Common Crane Grus grus, Eurasian Siskin Spinus spinus, Common Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus, Great Tit Parus major, Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis, Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta, Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus, and also raptors: Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, Common Buzzard Buteo buteo, Goshawk Accipiter gentilis, Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus, Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus and other species. Among detected species six are under protection of the Red Data Book of Ukraine: Common Crane, Hen Harrier, Stock Dove Columba oenas, Alpine Accentor Prunella collaris, Osprey Pandion haliaetus, and Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus. Median date of the overall bird passage falls on 9 October. Passage dynamics differs among species. Most of species prefer flight heights not higher than 55 m above the ridge, but some numerous species choose higher altitudes, for instance Wood Pigeon (85.6±62.7 m), and Common Crane (227.5±62.5 m).
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