The Cases of Abnormal Amplexus in Anura on the Territory of the Chernivtsi Region, Ukraine

Keywords: Amphibia, abnormal spawning, mating behaviour, Lissotriton montandoni


The paper contains information about 21 cases of abnormal amplexus among anurans (Amphibia) detected on the territory of the Chernivtsi Region, Ukraine. Multiple amplexus, consisting of one female and two or more males, was registered in three species: Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria. The author described interspecific amplexus in six cases. Five of them were among anurans (Bufo bufo male × Pelophylax lessonae male, Rana dalmatina males × Rana temporaria female or males, Rana temporaria male × Pelophylax ridibundus female) and one case — among Anura and Caudata (Bombina variegata male × Lissotriton montandoni female).


Amin, H., Kevin, R. Messenger, K.R., Borzée, A. 2021. First record of heterospecific amplexus behaviour between Pelophylax plancyi (Lataste, 1880) and P. nigromaculatus (Hallowell, 1861) from Nanjing, China. Herpetology Notes, 14, 773-774.

Ayres, C. 2008. Multiple amplexus in the Iberian Brown Frog Rana iberica. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 4 (2), 327-330.

Decemson, Ht., Biakzuala, L., Lalremsanga, H. T. 2020. Interspecific amplexus between two sympatric species, Amnirana nicobariensis (Stoliczka, 1870) and Microhyla berdmorei (Blyth, 1856) at Tuitun stream, Mizoram, India. Herpetology Notes, 13, 433-434.

Đorđević, S., Simović, A. 2014. Strange affection: male Bufo bufo (Anura: Bufonidae) passionately embracing a bulge of mud. Ecologica Montenegrina, 1 (1), 15-17.

Duellman, W. E., Trueb, L. 1994. Biology of Amphibians. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore-London, 1-670.

Gherghel, I., Strugariu, A., Ghiurcă, D., Cicort-Lucaciu, A.-Ş. 2008 a. The herpetofauna from the Bistriţa river basin (Romania): geographical distribution. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 4 (supp. 1), 71-103.

Gherghel, I., Strugariu, A., Pricop, E., Zamfirescu, S. 2008 b. The Northern Goşmani Mountains (Romania): an important herpetofaunal area requiring urgent protection. Herpetologica Romanica, 2, 51-54.

Gül, S., Özdemir, N., Dursun, C. 2018. First record of interspecific amplexus behaviour between Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769) and Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771) with Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Anura: Bufonidae) from Turkey. Herpetology Notes, 11, 153-155.

Hartel, T., Sas, I., Pernetta, A. P., Geltsch, I. C. 2007. The reproductive dynamics of temperate amphibians: a review. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 3 (2), 127-145.

Koynova, T. V., Natchev, N. D. 2021. Interspecific amplexus between Rana dalmatina (Fitzinger in Bonaparte, 1838) and Salamandra salamandra (Linnaeus, 1758) in "Shumensko Plato" Nature Park, Bulgaria. Herpetology Notes, 14, 653-655.

Kuzmin, S. L. 2012. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. KMK, Moscow, 1-370. ISBN 978-5-87317-871-1 [In Russian].

Mačát, Z., Jablonski, D. 2018. Pelobates fuscus (LaurentI, 1768), amplexing male Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758). Herpetozoa, 30 (3/4), 222-223.

Mačát, Z., Rindoš, M., Mihalca, D., Jablonski, D. 2019. Amplexus between two different orders of amphibians recorded in Romania. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 15 (1), 112-113.

Malashichev, Ye. B. 1999. Female amplexus in a Yellow-Bellied Toad, Bombina variegata. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 6 (2), 143-146.

Mollov, I. A., Popgeorgiev, G. S., Naumov, B. Y., Tzankov, N. D., Stoyanov, A. Y. 2010. Cases of abnormal amplexus in anurans (Amphibia: Anura) from Bulgaria and Greece. Biharean Biologist, 4 (2), 121-125.

Pintanel, P., Gabriela Obando-Moreno, G., Merino-Viteri, A. 2021. Necrophiliac behaviour in the recently described species Scinax tsachila (Anura: Hylidae), with a review of necrophilia in amphibians. Neotropical Biodiversity, 7 (1), 53-56.

Pupins, M., Telnov, D., Matrozis, R., Čeirāns, A. 2022. First report of amplexus in Anura (Amphibia) fron Latvia. Biharean Biologist, 16 (1), 47-50.

Pysanets, Ye. 2014. Amphibians of Eastern Europe. Part II. Order Ecaudata. Zoological Museum NNPM NAS Ukraine, Kyiv, 1-192.

Rocha, S. M., Santana, D. O., Soares da Silva, I. S., Faria, R. G. 2015. Interspecific amplexus between Hypsiboas albomarginatus (Spix, 1824) and Hypsiboas raniceps Cope, 1862 (Anura: Hylidae) in northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes, 8, 213-215.

Shabanov, D. A. 2011. Common toads, Green frogs: love and death in cool water. Priroda, 4, 56-59 [In Russian].

Shcherbak, N. N. 1966. Amphibians and reptiles of Crimea (Herpetologia Taurica). Naukova dumka, Kiev, 1-240 [In Russian].

Shcherbak, N. N., Shcherban, M. I. 1980. Amphibians and reptiles of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Naukova dumka, Kiev, 1-267 [In Russian].

Simović, A., Anderson, N., Anđelković, M., Gvozdenović, S., Đorđević, S. 2014. Unusual amplexuses between anurans and caudates. Herpetology Notes, 7, 25-29.

Smirnov, N. A. 2013. On the ecology of Rana dalmatina (Anura, Ranidae) in the territory of the Cis-Carpathians (Ukraine). Modern herpetology: problems and ways of their solutions. Collection of papers of the First International Conference of the Young Herpetologist of Russia and neighboring countries (Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 25-27 November 2013). Zoological Institute of RAS, St-Petersburg, 137-140 [In Russian].

Strugariu, A., Gherghel, I. 2008. A preliminary report on the composition and distribution of the herpetofauna in the Lower Prut River Basin (Romania). North-Western Journal of Zoology, 4, Suppl. 1, 49-69.

Vásquez-Cruz, V., Canseco-Márquez, L., Eduardo, M., Pérez-Gámez E. M. 2019. Two incidents of heterospecific amplexus involving Mexican Treefrogs (Smilisca baudini), a Rio Grande Leopard Frog (Lithobates berlandieri), and a Morelet's Leaf Frog (Agalychnis moreletii) (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, Ranidae, and Phyllomedusidae). Journal Reptiles & Amphibians, Conservation and Natural History, 26 (2), 140-141.

Willaert, B., Suyesh, R., Garg, S., Giri, V. B., Bee, M. A., Biju, S. D. 2016. A unique mating strategy without physical contact during fertilization in Bombay Night Frogs (Nictibatrachus humayuni) with the description of a new form of amplexus and female call. PeerJ, 4:e2117.

Zabroda, S. N., Ilyenko, E. P. 1981. Peculiarities of reproduction and larval development of common spadefoot - Pelobates fuscus (Laur.) from the Ukrainian Polesie. Vestnik zoologii, 4, 66-71 [In Russian].

How to Cite
Smirnov, N. A. (2022). The Cases of Abnormal Amplexus in Anura on the Territory of the Chernivtsi Region, Ukraine. Zoodiversity, 56(6).